This record has been written since the main aim of this research project is to research if you have a gender gap between boys and girls achievement in schools. If the education program was biased to 1 gender? If just what exactly are the elements which cause this? Any kind of possible solutions that can be utilised to solve this? The reason why behind why boys usually do not achieve and also girls in school. The objectives of this report are to go over, to discover and investigate why there is certainly gender gap as well why boys absence behind girls. This statement examines to discuss the sources of this gender gap in schools for women and boys. The problems that will be discussed in this report are the following: the annals behind the gender gap in accomplishment in schools because boys were once doing much better than girls. The reason behind this was that girls had to stay home has housewives likewise girls had to gain more marks in 11 plus exams than boys. Another aspect which will be viewed are schools also feminised which might give an edge to girls. Other strategies which will be argued are the way the curriculum is implemented and how subjects are assessed in schools. Other factors that may affect males achievement in schools happen to be peer pressure from good friends if they worked hard in institution they may be stereotyped as a geek likewise learning styles may affect attainment. But does cultural class and ethnicity influence the achievement of children in schools. However there are topics that favour boys than girls and vice a versa such as for example boys do much better than girls in maths and science but on the other hand girls perform better in English. This survey will evaluate factors that may increase this gap by having one sex classes and solo sex schools. The survey will contrast the ‘for’ and the ‘against’ arguments of experiencing single sex classes and one sex institutions. Definitions of the word gender differences

Literature review

There has been a large amount of work done on children achievement in schools: narrowing down the gap. In 1960 young boys were 21 times much more likely to wait university than girls. It could be suggested that the changing globe is having a direct effect on boys achievement when it comes to boys attainment in colleges and that of young girls success in schools. It had been suggested that the equivalent pay work and that of the sex discrimination action (1970) evolved the emphases of education plan and that may be noted as a key period of background that changed the targets of girls regarding careers and attainment. Young ladies had to attain higher marks in their 11 plus examination than boys. Elwood J et al (1998, p.5) declares that ’11 plus examination … children used to be chosen for secondary schooling, had been deliberately skewed in order that young ladies had t achieve greater results than boys’. The time 1950-1960 found the reason why behind this is because boys matured soon after than girls which wouldn’t normally have already been fair to leave out males from attending grammar schools. However in 1990 their was concern over boys accomplishment in schools.

It has been suggested that in societies including the UK the socialisation process as it managed at least up to the 1970s meant that many parents socialised their daughters showing dependence, obedience, conformity and domesticity whereas males were encouraged to be dominant, competitive and self-reliant. Also when young children saw their parents acting out classic gender roles various would perceive these roles as natural and unavoidable leading kids to imagine their futures as fulltime housewives and moms and as fulltime paid employees respectively. In universities teachers praised ladies for "feminine attributes" and boys for "masculine qualities"; boys and girls were encouraged to opt for traditional male and feminine subjects and then for classic male and female professions. Furthermore in certain sections of the media [and especially most likely in teenage magazines] young girls were encouraged to identify the all importance of finding "Mr. Best suited" and settling right down to a lifestyle of blissful domesticity in their traditional housewife-mother functions. Cole (2006, p.26) shows that even before children head to school their parents will deal with a boy and girl completely different. Even in culture throughout history this has occurred. A lot of research has gone into this; your gender is an issue from when you are born. Automatically society will say how a gal will behave and what sort of boy will behave. If it’s a boy, oh he’s like that because he’s a boy and boys always take longer to grasp it.

Girls, also in the late 1960s were much more likely than boys to get 5 or more GCE Ordinary Level pass grades. From the 1960s to the 1980s the percentages of kids gaining 5 or even more GCE Ordinary Level pass grades gradually increased but the so-known as "gender gap" in educational attainment increased especially after the GCSE was introduced generally because young girls have maintained their traditional higher attainment levels in Arts and Humanities topics but also reduced [and in a few years overturned] the original attainment gaps towards males in Mathematics and Research subjects. The GCSE was presented in 1988 and from then onwards the female- male gender difference in educational achievement at GCSE level widened as dissimilarities between your [ higher] female pass rates and the male move rates in Arts and Humanities widened and females narrowed or in some cases reversed the traditional higher male pass rates in Mathematics and research subjects. It has been claimed that the relative improvement of female educational achievements can be explained partly by the nature of the brand new GCSE courses .This has been disputed, nevertheless, on the grounds that several factors possess contributed to these trends. By the late 1980s females were more likely than males to get two or more HIGHER LEVEL passes and during the course of the 1990s they also became more likely to gain 3 or more An even passes. Females also rapidly became much more likely than males to gain A grades in almost all Advanced Level subjects Nevertheless gender distinctions in examination effectiveness at Advanced are smaller than at GCSE level.

In 2007-2008 69.3% of girls and 60.1% of boys achieved 5 or even more GCSE Grade A*-C passes; 51.3% of girls and 42.0% of boys achieved 5 or more GCSE Quality A*-C passes including English and Maths. The gender difference in examination success varies substantially from subject to subject. For example girls in 2007-2008 girls outperformed males by 14% in English, 16% in Style and Technology, 9% in Modern Foreign Languages, 17% in Art and Style and 12 % in English Literature but by only 1% in Mathematics, 2% in Core Sciences, 1% in Chemistry and 2% in Classical Analyses. Although the data are not presented here Girls are now more likely to get A* and A grades generally in most however, not all GCSE subjects.

Other areas the study will concentrate on are schools also feminised, advantage for girls but disadvantage for boys. Hutchings (2002) says ‘the phrase feminisation is used simply to make reference to the fact there are more female teachers than male, especially in the principal sector’. (Biddulph, 1997 cited in Skelton et el, 2007) state that ‘the current situation is normally presented as one which is harmful to the educational experiences and opportunities of boys with the implication that boys do better when taught by men teachers’. (Skelton et el, 2007) recommend that ‘Another utilization of the phrase ‘feminisation of universities’ is in relation to the theory that the predominance of females provides led to the delivery of the curriculum, assessment methods and the operations and organisation of the classroom turning into extra ‘feminine’ in nature’. Feminine teachers are considerably more lenient on boys than male teachers also male teachers could be role versions for pupils which will enable the child to be motivated to understand and succeed in education.

Findings have suggested that it is vital to keep the subjects taught in curriculum interesting for children to understand about in class. This might enable children to be motivated to understand and gets rid of the label of boringness of lessons. Jackson (2006, p.127) claims that ‘if students discover the curriculum boring, it offers little incentive to allow them to counter the ‘uncool to do the job’ discourse’.

Methods of assessment have been recognized particularly frequently as an integral factor in this ‘bias against boys’. An increased volume of assessed coursework possesses been suggested to explain boys doing less very well at GCSE and A amounts, with the argument staying that boys do less well at coursework because of their preferred learning designs (Skelton et al, 2007). Girls do less well at ‘sudden death’ examinations (timed examinations previously unseen by the prospect) which depend on last-minute revision and require self-confidence. This latter sort of assessment possesses been argued to favour males, and was the foundation for O level examinations (the examinations that preceded GCSEs in Britain). Bleach, 1998, cited in Skelton et al, 2007 ‘In fact, however, girls’ results were already improving prior to the GCSE assessment version was introduced’. And additional, Arnot et al. (1999) discuss what sort of reduction in the coursework component in public areas examinations in the 1990s did little to improve the pattern of

gender achievement (Skelton et al, 2007).

Another issue could possibly be masculinity peer pressure from good friends Jackson (2006, p.74) states that ‘the uncool to function’ this statement is normally suggesting that if males work hard at university they will not be cool. (Jackson, 2006, p.84) ‘Those who seem to be to be virtually all disadvantaged consequently of the discourse are those who attempt to balance academic job and popularity but can not manage to do both successfully’. This is a powerful predictor in a lot of schools, this is seen as social status of pupils must be popular and become part of an organization. A lot of pupils will come to feel being unpopular is not as good as other things. Also it will cause negative impact. Both girls and boys have to become they are chilled, calm, laid back in terms of the academic side of work.

As the relative level of female educational improvement elevated it had become argued that this may be explained to some extent by biological factors. Experiments investigating the brain actions of male and female babies suggested that dissimilarities in the structures of female and male brains respectively may mean that females have genetically determined linguistic positive aspects which would clarify females especial facility with language based topics. It was also suggested that young girls’ earlier maturity means that they can concentrate better and so are better organised especially with regards to course work. This was considered to be a substantial point as the relative improvement in female GCSE benefits was associated especially with the introduction of coursework-established assessments which have been absent from the GCE Standard Level examinations that your GCSE replaced. Yet, in relation to these theories it ought to be noted that male-female distinctions in Advanced level language examination results are small, that the relationships between physical and intellectual maturity are uncertain and that gender distinctions in examination results can’t be explained simply by the existence or lack of coursework.

Other elements that may affect attainment will vary learning styles, both boys and girls learn differently, but we have to be careful we usually do not stereotype on gender. When seeking at the gender debate it has been suggested by Coffield (2004) that account to learning variations is important when establishing the link as to why there is a gap between children because of peer pressure for the boys what their close friends may think if they achieved well in institution, the way boys are assessed in institutions for instance males do better in examinations than coursework. Examples of these could possibly be boys would prefer to learn kinaesthetically by doing points such as for example experiments or activities and young ladies would learn very well visually by seeing. Curiosity in ‘learning styles’ has grown rapidly recently and perceived variations in the learning styles of children are one of the usually expressed explanations for the gender gap in accomplishment. This argument can be based on the presumption that if boys are naturally dissimilar to girls because of their biological make-up, afterward it follows that they will have different methods to learning (Noble and Bradford, 2000; Gurian, 2002). Analyses have shown that the vast majority of children prioritise a teacher’s individual ability as a teacher, and their degree of care for their students, instead of a teacher’s gender. Skelton et al (2009), Francis et al (2008).

Boys to better in maths than girls research by Hargreaves et al into pupils’ stereotypical attitudes to mathematics and English provides shown that stereotypes succeed among pupils, with many believing that maths is usually a boys’ subject where males carry out better, and English a young girls’ subject where girls do better. DfES (2007, p. 3) ‘Boys outperform young girls in Maths at Key element Stage 2, and continue to outnumber girls at higher level maths. But there is normally a large gender gap favouring young girls in English’. However girls do better in English than boys On the other hand women of all ages do better on examining comprehension and vocabulary than men do. APA article state that ‘some verbal jobs show substantial mean dissimilarities favouring females.

Whitepaper on gender differences in achievement

Social class and ethnicity relating to Cole (2006, p.29) states that ‘Gender isn’t the strongest predictor of attainment. Social class attainment gap at key stage 4 is 3 x as vast as gender gap’. DfES (2007, p.3) ‘Evaluation of the attainment data shows that other elements or a mixture of factors, such as ethnicity and social category, have a larger bearing on educational accomplishment than gender considered alone. Gender variations in educational achievement are far smaller than social class distinctions in educational achievement. Pupils of both sexes who are eligible free of charge school meals are far less likely than pupils of both sexes ineligible to reach your goals at both degrees of the training system. Some ethnic variations in educational achievement are also higher than gender dissimilarities in educational achievement.

Statistics on the gender gap between boys and girls Attainment at each end of the distribution of grades also varies by gender. Girls are much more likely than boys to get an A* quality at GCSE. Boys are a little more more likely to gain a G quality at GCSE or to gain no GCSEs at all. The major gender differences (a lady advantage of more than ten percentage points on those attaining an A*-C GCSE) happen to be for the Humanities, the Arts and Languages. Smaller gender dissimilarities (a female good thing about five percentage factors or less) tend to maintain Science and Maths topics. A few of these achievement patterns have been relatively secure over six decades of exam results, particularly in English Words and Literature, French, Art work and Design and Religious Studies. There were changing patterns through the years. In Maths, there’s been a shift from a male benefit averaging 4 percentage things ahead of 1991 to a slim female advantage of 1-2 percentage points in recent years. In Geography, there’s been a widening of the gap in females’ favour, and in History, there’s been variation but with girls today doing superior to boys.

This exploration will explore possible solutions we are able to use to resolve this gap such as for example single sex schools which may help young girls to speak out. Moments online (2004) ‘Girls in mixed classrooms refrain from speaking up and answering questions’. Another way of solving the gender gap is definitely by having one sex classes in mixed schools in order that teachers can meet distinct learning styles for males. Research has demonstrated that girls obtain better results in single sex academic institutions in comparison to mixed schools Curtis (2009). Odone (2004) ‘conversely, that boys usually do not want to study international languages or shine in English literature in case they happen to be mocked as poofs’. Garner (2008) ‘Variances in how male and female brains work signify single-sex schooling can make a comeback – leading head mistress in the Independent’. However the disadvantages of sex universities Blair (2006) ‘Girls universities feature highly in the group tables because they’re highly selective, their kids result from particular social backgrounds and they have good teachers’. BBC News (2006) ‘While both single-sex and co-education possess passionate advocates, half of a century of exploration has so far disclosed no striking or consistent differences one approach or the different’. Odone (2004) ‘Children, will inhabit a mixed society later, thus let them start adolescent, with mixed classes’. Younger et al (2005, p.89) found that boys and girls may feel more relaxed in single sex classes, feel even more able to interact with learning and feel free to show interest in the lesson without inhibition. It had been felt that there can be positive effects on achievement for boys in contemporary languages and young ladies in science and maths. (Dcfs (2007)


The methods which will be used to gather research because of this project will be as follows: the utilization of books to get facts on issues affecting gender differences in achievement at schools and what theorist have already found around this agenda. The internet will be useful because of this research study because you can research recent and up to date statistical data on the gender gap and receive government published upon this debate. Journals will get useful for the study project to gather recent data and adjustments in the debate around children achievement in schools and narrowing down the gap. These methods of researching are called secondary analysis. Secondary research is the application of material, which has been researched by someone else. The different research options for secondary research are as follows: technology based research is to do with researching from the laptop to really get your information, which has a lot of benefits including the internet provides online libraries; e-literature, journals and encyclopaedias such as for example infed. The primary electronic databases which will be used because of this research are the following education exploration complete, education online and SwetsWise. The key read which will be used will be based on gender differences and achievement in institution also how the search found several journals, but some were irrelevant, to the study topic. Search engines assist you to through the mass of info on the web two most popular search engines happen to be Bing, google advanced search and google scholar likewise on the internet you can search for newspaper articles. On the other hand web sources may

not always be reliable so researchers need to find out how accurate the info there are quantity of ways to determine the accuracy of the sites. According to Walliman and Buckler (2008, p.92) ‘review the info with other options and is it biased many use the web to market ideas’.

The known reasons for choosing to do the research project as a table study were as follows: to find out what was already researched in this field and arguments that have already been produced around this agenda. However the reasons for not choosing the fieldwork approach method were since it will be time consuming and option of schools to carry out the research is bound and difficult to acquire a place in schools to do observations.

The features of the desk study approach are as follows; able to collect, understand and interpret data as well to limit costs such as travelling costs. The down sides of desk study could be the availability of books from the library

In contrast the features of the interview approach (structure and unstructured) features of structured interviews are period management can be controlled, results are simple to gather and the issues are securely set in advance. the drawbacks of structured interviews is there might be other issues to question and you can’t develop on concerns. The benefits of unstructured interviews is there is a lot of time, you can form questions and it is a relaxed method. Down sides of the interview way are as follows: The cons of unstructured interviews are the interview can simply be considered a chat, not all the participants are asked the same inquiries and only a number of the questions are asked.

Indirect observation is when a participant gets their data from viewing from considerably. Direct observation is whenever a participant obtains info by combining with the circumstances they are watching. Advantages of the observation approach (direct and indirect) the advantages of observations are actions can be seen in the normal surroundings and observations can both end up being direct or indirect. Negatives of the observation procedure (direct and indirect) the negatives of observations are they are lengthy and not consistent.

Qualitative vs. quantitative


There was clear proof that in the period of the 11+ pass marks were set larger for women than for boys in order to prevent girls from going for a disproportionate talk about of Grammar School places. From the early 1950s before late 1960s women were not as likely than boys to end up being entered for GCE Ordinary Level examinations. In any case in the 1950s and early 1960s various pupils left institution at get older 15 having considered no official countrywide examinations. The candidate pass price in GCE O Level examinations was larger for women than for boys from the first 50s to the later 1960s so that despite the higher entry costs for men the percentages of male and female school leavers truly passing 5 or even more GCE O amounts were fairly comparable although females did usually outperform males by 1-2% every year. This total statistic masked the facts that girls outperformed males by extensive margins in Arts and Humanities topics and that boys generally outperformed girls but by small margins in Mathematics and Technology subjects.

In purchase to analyse the relative educational improvement from the 1980s onwards we should distinguish between elements accelerating the level of female improvement and factors restricting the price of male improvement. Females’ and males’ educational achievements have improved however the rate of feminine improvement has got been faster which widened the female-male accomplishment gap specifically at GCSE level. Remember, however, that gender, cultural class and ethnicity will be interconnected. Girls are more lucrative than boys in all ethnic groups but middle class boys remain more educationally successful than working class girls in all ethnic groups. Gender variations in educational achievement are smaller than social class differences in educational achievement plus some ethnic variations in educational achievement.

Research has shown that "Of the 71,286 girls who sat GCSEs in single-sex academic institutions over the three-calendar year period, normally all did much better than predicted based on their end of most important SATS results. By comparison, of the 647,942 who took exams in mixed-sex schools, 20% did worse than expected." This signifies that girls in one sex schools can be expected to do better in their school, compared to girls in mixed colleges.

Studies have proven that girls in mixed sex classes "tend to avoid speaking up and males don’t want to review English to avoid staying mocked as ‘poofs’", therefore single sex colleges would help to resolve this issue as they will remove this pressure between your genders and allow both children to participate freely. Likewise Single sex universities will benefit learners as male and female brains work differently. Young ladies can relate to emotions more and so are viewed as caring and talkative they can sit and speak about emotions whereas boys are more likely to do practical things rather than talking of emotions, hence why boys fail in English. Consequently conceivably, as this leading brain mistress, quoted in the Independent implies, single sex classes have to be implemented to meet the training strategies of different sexes.

Mainly English and foreign languages can be where I believe that pupils need a gender based curriculum as was suggested by the DFES (2007) report it remarks that of the main topics, the gender gap is usually widest in English; general, the differences in dialect and literacy skills are given as the main reason behind the gender gap in attainment. It’s advocated that there surely is around 10% children leaving education with 5 Cs and above girls since 1968 have already been slowly achieving better than males according to Dcfs record into gender. This is a step towards the well researched idea that genders learn differently it is therefore possible to advise that gender specific learning amongst boys and girls will close the statistical gap of attainment. Although the dfes report recommend that’s no substantial evidence to returning this up I believe children will benefit from this approach.

Another issue that I came across is that boys have a tendency to perform better on spatial expertise; they discover mathematics and technology more interesting to understand about. But on the other hand girls to raised on verbal, comprehension and vocabulary abilities than boys do.

This table displays the gap in 1989 was just 6% but 10yrs after it had increased to 10%. It is suggested by S. Ball (2008) that gap can be an overall statistic rather than subject specific he shows that in 2004 the deviations of the gap was just 1% and that in a few subjects boys achieve better results than girls it is therefore not valid to state that all boys or all females achieve fewer in GCSE levels


In summary doing this research project on children achievement in colleges and narrowing down the gap. The study found that there isn’t as big as a gap as people thought. The primary factors that affect boys achievement will be peer pressure and schools too feminised. The study also found that single sex academic institutions and classes do not make that much difference but it found that girls have significantly more confidence to participate in class discussion. In conclusion, the annals of the gender gap demonstrates the gender gap itself is definitely present in education, but was hidden by the benefit given to males in 1960s, and it had been often harder for girls to progress into further education, since it was not expected of them, therefore impacting the gender gap in the good sense that there were lower amounts of girls therefore boys progressing.

Over the years males have improved and so have girls, retaining the gender gap but showing that boys happen to be adapting to the alterations and are working harder to keep up. The gender dissimilarities in children does display that they learn in different ways, and these variations are, now more afterward ever, taken into account in teaching strategies, lesson planning and evaluation methods, and there is evidence showing that "Boys will be fighting back at A levels, with their results improving more rapidly than young ladies" (BBC, 2004),however, it is crucial to "recognise there are girls and boys who wont fit into these gendered patterns" and for that reason focus should be placed on the individual rather than the "biologically predisposed" objectives, (Phoenix, 2004, pg 34). We’re able to also conclude that improvement could be the first sign that males are now realising they have to fight to maintain their place in the workforce, as background shows women have already been viewed as "servants to the express" (Steedman, 1985, cited in Arnot and Ghaill, 2006, pg 19). This oppression of women, like additional cases where parts of society have already been repressed (e.g. repression of the afro-Caribbean human population), resulted in females fighting or rebelling for his or her place in contemporary society, which is not something the male population has had to accomplish. Subsequently acting as a way to obtain motivation for women to make certain they are cared for as equals and also to progress in lifestyle, where as men have missed from this and until just lately, have lacked the motivation to fight because of their place. Now guys are in a place of competition with women and are now "beginning to see that it is not particularly smart to under-achieve" (BBC, 2004).